Revision Knee Replacement
Revision knee replacement surgery may involve the replacement of one or all the components.
The surgery is performed under general anaesthesia. Your surgeon makes an incision over the knee to expose the knee joint. The kneecap along with its ligament may be moved aside so that there is enough room to perform the operation. Then the old femoral component of the knee prosthesis is removed. The femur is prepared to receive the new component. In some cases, the damaged bone is removed and bone graft or a metal wedge may be used to make up for the lost bone.
Next the tibial component along with the old plastic liner is removed. The damaged bone is cut and the tibia is prepared to receive the new component. Like the femur, the lost bone is replaced either by a metal wedge or bone graft. Then, a new tibial component is secured to the end of the bone using bone cement. A new plastic liner will be placed on the top of the tibial component. If the patella (kneecap) has been damaged, your surgeon will resurface and attach a plastic component. The tibial and femoral components of the prosthesis are then brought together to form the new knee joint, and the knee muscles and tendons are reattached. Surgical drains are placed for the excess blood to drain out and the incision is closed.
Risks and Complications of Revision Knee Replacement
Like all major surgical procedures, there may be certain risks and complications involved with revision knee replacement surgery. The possible complications after revision knee replacement include:
- Stiffness in the knee
- Formation of blood clots in the leg veins
- Injury to nerves or blood vessels
- Prosthesis failure
- Patella (kneecap) dislocation
- Ligament injuries
Postoperative Care for Revision Knee Replacement
Following revision knee replacement surgery, a Continuous passive motion (CPM) machine may be used to allow the knee joint to slowly move. The machine is attached to the treated leg which slowly moves the joint through a controlled range of motion, while you relax.
You can walk with crutches or a walker. You will be sent for rehabilitation within a couple days of surgery. A physiotherapist will teach you specific exercises to strengthen your leg and restore range of motion to the knee. Your physiotherapist will also provide you with a home exercise program to strengthen thigh and calf muscles.
Knee immobilizers are used when performing physiotherapy, walking and while sleeping to keep the knee stabilised.
Revision knee replacement surgery is performed to replace failed knee prosthesis with a new prosthetic component. The surgery improves mobility and enables you to return to normal activities with a pain-free knee.